關於台北藝術論壇 ◎ ART TAIPEI FORUM
年度主題 ◎ THEME
The Origin of Paintings
隨著繪畫偽造、作者歸屬錯誤的情形日益漸增，2010年時，前荷蘭藝術史學會理事長Rudi Ekkart及Milko den Leeuw意識到建立一鑑定機構的必要性，這個機構要能橋接藝術領域中的不同專業，集結各式專家學者，並以透明、合作、創新為宗旨，此便是位於荷蘭海牙的藝術鑑定基金會（AiA）之創立緣起。至今，此一藝術鑑定基金會已走過6個年頭，注入了許多心血奠基藝術鑑定的不同議題及面向，本場次很榮幸邀請到藝術鑑定基金會的創辦人Milko den Leeuw，將與大眾分享此機構的活動與推展，顯示一具有公信力機構在藝術鑑定領域中的必要與重要性。
The idea for a foundation concerned with the authenticity of art focused on paintings arose in 2010, during meetings between Prof Dr Rudi Ekkart, the former director of the Netherlands Institute for Art History, and Milko den Leeuw, director of the Atelier for Restoration & Research of Painting in The Netherlands. The necessity for such a foundation had become more and more evident by the increasing number of cases involving forgeries, misattributions and identification swaps. For over six years now, the Authentication in Art (AiA) Foundation has worked on improving research and cooperation concerning the authenticity of paintings, ranking from ancient times till contemporary. We are honored to have Milko den LEEUW as our speaker, who will reflect on the past six years of AiA, as well as look to the future.
The Procedure for Establishing the Scientific Resume of the Artwork and its Application
伴隨科技發展迅速，為確保文物暨藝術品之原始狀態，文物修復檢測工作則進入「非破壞性檢測技術」(Non-destructive Examination, NDE)之時代，然而分析標的物從受損而需修復之文物藝術品擴大至狀況良好之作品，文物藝術品之科學研究發展亦從藝術品保存修復領域進入藝術品科學履歷建置與鑑定，並以非破壞性檢測技術為主要方向。建置文物及藝術品之科學鑑定程序，雖各方法皆有其相對的應用範圍，但串聯後所得資訊即可提供修復保存、履歷建置、鑑定識別及藝術家創作習性等研究領域參考運用，定義出文物暨藝術品之科鑑定程序。本場次將由正修科技大學文物修護中心的吳漢鐘博士擔任主講人，依其資深的實務經驗與觀眾分享藝術品檢測發展至今，在意義及實際應用上的轉變與情形。
In order to conserve cultural artifacts and artwork in their original state, artifact conservation work has entered the era of non-destructive examination (NDE). As the subject of analysis broadens from only damaged artwork requiring restoration to pieces in adequate condition, the scientific research and development of artwork has also transitioned from artwork conservation-restoration into the field of art science biography construction and authentication with non-destructive examination methods as the major approach. There are different scopes for different methods when establishing scientific authentication procedures for cultural artifacts and artwork, but when all the information is linked, they can be provided for use in conservation-restoration, constructing biographies, differentiating authentications, the creative process, and can also be used to define the authentication process for cultural artifacts and artwork. This event has the honor of having Dr. Han-Chung WU from the Cheng Siu University Conservation Center as our main speaker. Dr. Wu will be drawing from his experience to share with the audience the development of artwork authentication, its meaning, and the changes and situation of its practical application.
The Conservation Science and Restoration Ethics of Artwork
藝術品是見證文化文明傳承之重要資產，其承載的除了美學價值外，也代表著各時代當下有形及無形的文化歷史，是故致力保存使之得以永續係為吾人所當為之。然無可避免的，藝術品有其自然老化劣化的可能，一旦有這類的狀況發生，就需以先進的科學技術來進行最適化的修復保存。於藝術品保存修復的發展，早由文藝復興時代以來即開始，但19世紀以後，才以系統性的方式來修復與保存這些文化資產，為了獲得藝術品所使用材料或其他相關資訊，以研究藝術品的最適保存方式，19世紀的歐洲始將藝術與科學結合，除了發展出所謂的藝術品修復倫理外，50、60年代亦開始將其介入藝術品修復，調查藝術品所具有的材料類別，以利修復師能用不相容、可逆且可呈現藝術品原貌的物質進行修復，把藝術與科學結合的能量，用於回復或提高藝術品的價值。然隨著藝術品的媒材各異，勢必有其對應的修復方式與準則，本場次榮幸邀請到正修科技大學文物修護中心的李益成主任、油畫修復師Ioseba Imanol Soraluze Herrera、呂堅華女士、紙質修復師戴君珊女士、以及器物修復師陳奕岑女士，由吳漢鐘博士擔任主持人，集結各藝術媒材的專家洞見，共同致力於保存有形的藝術作品及無形的文化價值。
Artwork is an important asset that witnesses the passing on of civilization. In addition to the aesthetic value it carries, it also embodies the tangible and intangible cultural history of the current era. Hence, we are dedicated to the conservation of artwork so it may also be enjoyed by future generations. Inevitably, there is a possibility artwork may naturally deteriorate. If such a situation arises, advanced technology is needed for conservation and restoration. The practice of artwork conservation and restoration started as early as the Renaissance. But it wasn’t until after the 19th century when a more systematic approach of conservation and restoration was employed on these cultural assets. 19th century Europe started to combine art and science in order to obtain information on what materials were used and other relevant information, and also research on the most appropriate conservation methods. In addition to the gradual development of artwork restoration ethics, experts forayed into the realm of artwork restoration during the 50’s and 60’s. Research was conducted on the types of materials used on the original artwork so restoration experts could use elements that were able to recreate the appearance of the artwork, but were also not harmful and reversible. The combined power of art and science was able to restore or elevate the value of artwork. As the medium of artwork are varied, the corresponding restoration methods and guidelines also vary. We are honored to be able to invite Director I-Chen LI from the Cheng Siu University Conservation Center, oil painting conservator Ioseba Imanol Soraluze Herrera, Ms. Chien-Hua LU, paper conservator Ms. Chun-Shan TAI, and vessel conservator Ms. Yi-Tsen CHEN. The panel will be moderated by Dr. Han-Chung WU and it will combine expert insight across all artwork mediums that are jointly dedicated to conserving tangible artwork and intangible cultural value.
Legal Issues Stemming from Artwork Authenticity Cases
Currently, there is no artwork authentication mechanism in Taiwan. Artwork authenticity certification is usually provided by the seller. But guarantee of authenticity and evidence to prove that are all key issues. An authentication document requires expert (someone who is familiar with the artist’s style and materials used) review, material review, literature, and other data as supplementary evidence for authentication use. But in Taiwan (and also many other countries), there is no standard procedure for issuing an authenticity certification. As long as the issuer believes themselves to be an industry insider, they can issue an authenticity certification. Being an “industry insider” does not require any special training, background, or certification. These experts may be art historians, conservators, scientific reviewers, family members, proxies, or “connoisseurs”. Different experts employ different methods. So if there are any authenticity doubts which bring about disputes between buyer and seller and legal action must be taken, many questions will arise. For example: what evidence will hold up in court? And from the past few cases in Taiwan, many art experts were not willing to testify. If they testify, will their names and authentication methods be made public? There are still many questions between art and the law that need to be clarified. Director Ping LIN of the Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Chia-Ying LIN, partner at Tomodachi Attorneys-at-Law, and Dr. Chieh-Hsiang WU from the Department of Fine Arts at National Changhua University of Education will come together to explore the different issues when art and the law collide.
論壇講者 ◎ SPEAKERS
Milko Den LEEUW
Ioseba Imanol Soraluze Herrera
大會手冊 ◎ MEETING PROGRAMME
精選影片 ◎ VIDEOS